Anakinra is a recombinant non-glycosylated form of the human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). It works by binding the type 1 IL-1 receptor, causing competitive inhibition, and preventing the actions of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β. It is excreted by the kidney, and is given as a subcutaneous injection.
- Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist deficiency (DIRA) (unlicensed !!!! one supposes as NOMID was redefined to exclude this)
- Rheumatoid arthritis in combination with methotrexate
- Reduces disease symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients on methotrexate further than those on methotrexate alone, and also to help prevent radiological disease progression. A long term study showed it helped increase function.
- Suggested dosing regime for moderate to severe RA is 100mg per day, given by sub-cut injection at approximately the same time each day. In severe renal insufficiency it should be given every 48 hours.
- Neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease(NOMID).
- Chronic Infantile Neurological, Cutaneous, Articular Syndrome (CINCA)
- Muckle-Wells syndrome
- Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome
- By analogy it might work in other forms of CAPS
- Still's disease
- Has been shown to potentially modify the course of type 2 diabetes
- Increased incidence of serious infections
Human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist produced in Escherichia coli by recombinant DNA technology.
- ↑ Goldbach-Mansky R, Dailey NJ, Canna SW, Gelabert A, Jones J, Rubin BI, et al. Neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease responsive to interleukin-1beta inhibition. The New England journal of medicine 2006;355:581-92. (Direct link – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Fitzgerald AA, Leclercq SA, Yan A, Homik JE, Dinarello CA. Rapid responses to anakinra in patients with refractory adult-onset Still's disease. Arthritis and rheumatism 2005;52:1794-803. (Direct link – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Larsen CM, Faulenbach M, Vaag A, VÃ¸lund A, Ehses JA, Seifert B, et al. Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The New England journal of medicine 2007;356:1517-26. (Direct link – subscription may be required.)