Appraising Case-Control studies

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see PHRU on appraising Case-Control studies

Case-Control studies are suitable for rare conditions, and can look at multiple exposures.

  • Aims (and whether results appropriate to aims).
  • Case definition
  • Case ascertainment
  • Control selection (?bias) - patients within the same medical facility, excluding those with certain diseases, including only those with certain diseased believed to be unrelated to the causal factors to be investigated…, sample of general community…)
  • Exposure definition
  • Exposure ascertainment
  • Non-response/exclusions - are those analysed representative?
  • Adjustments for problems - are they adequate?
  • Blinding
  • Outcome measurement.
  • Bias - recall, recording, etc.
  • Confounding (age, sex, socio-economic group, smoking, alchohol, vitamins, nutrition…) adequately considered?