Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are vascular deformities involving fistula formation of arterial to venous structures without an intervening capillary bed. They can result from trauma but most are spontaneous. Arteriovenous malformations can occur anywhere in the body and are not rare. In the CNS, even if rare, they tend to be more problematical due to the spontaneous haemorrhage risk being life threatening. In this case they are also associated with epilepsy. They have more childhood morbidity associated with them than say haemangioma.
- Port wine stain as in Sturge-Weber syndrome (encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis) or Proteus syndrome
- Gastrointestinal arteriovenous malformations as in Heyde syndrome and after insertion left ventricular assist devices
- Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations as in dyskeratosis congenita and other telomere disorders
- Cerebral arteriovenous malformations are an important cause of haemorrhagic stroke and are associated with somatic activating KRAS mutations.
- Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia
- Ataxia telangiectasia
They may be treated by embolectomy (and other intervention radiographic techniques), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and other surgical techniques.