Interference with oxygenation and/or ventilation, usually mechanical, leading to increasing hypoxia and eventually anoxia.
- Lack of atmospheric oxygen due to environment
- enclosed in small space
- deep well in chalk (accumulation of CO2)
- grain silo
- e.g. homicide with pillow or accidental with plastic bags
- usually foreign bodies
- hanging(of the non-execution type) "suspension from a ligature".
- Traumatic asphyxia -chest compression preventing respiratory movements.
- Facial congestion
- Facial oedema
- Facial cyanosis
- petechial haemorrhages of face and eyes
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