Blood substitutes

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To reduce risks of allogeneic transfusion (i.e. blood from another individual). Also, many countries suffer from a chronic shortage of donors.


Modified haemoglobins

    • Free, unmodified haemoglobin poorly tolerated. Toxic outside of erythrocytes
    • Side-effects in trials considered unacceptable


Volume replacement


Other alternatives (not strictly substitutes):

  • Autologous transfusion
    • Via pre-operative storage
    • Via cell salvage
  • Anti-fibrinolytics