Bone morphogenetic protein 2
The BMP2 gene at 20p12.3 codes for the 396 amino acid pro-peptide of bone morphogenetic protein 2. This induces cartilage and bone formation and is a component of the signalling pathway that stimulates the differentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts. It is a driver of epicardial cell migration in the formation of coronary blood vessels. Dysfunctional mutations are lethal to embryo development. BMP-2 activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 stimulates phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1 which leads to increased expression of cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4 which plays a central role in osteoblast differentiation. BMP-2 also stimulates transmembrane protein 119 which also upregulates the expression of cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4. Like most other members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of regulatory proteins it has other potential effects as a growth stimulator and its usual receptor proteins are known to lack specificity, being activated by other bone morphogenetic proteins.
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 has been developed for use in tissue engineering requiring new bone formation as with non union of fractures. A shorter chain form rhBMP2-108 is also in development.
- ↑ Allison P, Espiritu D, Camenisch TD. BMP2 rescues deficient cell migration in Tgfbr3(-/-) epicardial cells and requires Src kinase. Cell adhesion & migration. 2015 Dec 8; :0.(Epub ahead of print) (Link to article – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Scarfì S. Use of bone morphogenetic proteins in mesenchymal stem cell stimulation of cartilage and bone repair. World journal of stem cells. 2016 Jan 26; 8(1):1-12.(Link to article – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Zhang Y, Shuang Y, Fu H, Zhou W, Qian L, Dai J, Miron RJ. Characterization of a shorter recombinant polypeptide chain of bone morphogenetic protein 2 on osteoblast behaviour. BMC oral health. 2015; 15(1):171.(Epub) (Link to article – subscription may be required.)