Butorphanol , as one of the more potent opioid agonists is used as a supplement to general anaesthesia. It is a weak mu-antagonist and kappa-partial-agonist, perhaps 5-7 times as potent as morphine.
Increases heart rate, arterial and pulmonary blood pressures and cardiac output
Cautions and Interactions
- Pre-existing ischaemic heart disease
- Nausea and vomiting
- Respiratory depression