This article is a stub. Please feel free to expand it and make it more encyclopaedic.
Enteric pathogens include:
- Amoebic infections (esp Entamoeba histolytica), causing amoebic dysentery
- Bacillus spp, including Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis group
- Campylobacter spp, esp Campylobacter jejuni
- Cholera (principally Vibrio cholerae O1 (biotypes classical and El Tor) and V. cholerae O139
- Clostridium botulinum – causes botulism
- Clostridium difficile - causes antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD)
- Clostridium perfringens
- Cryptosporidium spp, especially Cryptosporidium parvum
- Cyclosporiasis (principally Cyclospora cayetanensis
- Escherichia coli - including vero cytotoxin-producing (VTEC) strains (principally E coli O157 - note it is O for Oscar, not nought) and others.
- Giardia spp, including principally Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, syn. Giardia intestinalis)
- Hepatitis A virus
- Listeria monocytogenes
- Marine biotoxins – marine algal shellfish poisoning syndromes and ciguatera poisoning and, especially scombrotoxic poisoning
- Vibrios other than cholera
- Noroviruses (aka Norwalk-like viruses (NLV), small round structured viruses (SRSV), and a cause of winter vomiting disease)
- Rotavirus (nb - a new vaccine may soon be licensed to prevent rotavirus infections)
- Salmonella spp, including Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi (the cause of typhoid/enteric fever) and Salmonella paratyphi (the cause of paratyphoid/enteric fever)
- Shigella, which comprises four species: S sonnei, S boydii, S dysenteriae and S flexneri, and causes shigellosis
- Staphylococcus aureus (which produces enterotoxins which can cause food poisoning)
- Worms (helminths)
- Yersinia spp (causing yersiniosis) - principally Y enterocolitica; occasionally Y pseudotuberculosis
Many enteric pathogens can cause gastroenteritis. Some cause febrile illnesses.
Ensure no secondary spread by advice on hygiene and exclusion from work, as per HPA guidance. The usual rule is to exclude patients from work or school until they are well (and they have had no diarrhoea or vomiting) for 48 hours. Typhoid and paratyphoid are an exception requiring longer exclusion. The details depend on what the infection organism is, and the job they do (or if they're in other risk categories).
If the patient is a food handler, has reason to think they got ill from e.g. restaurant food, or cares for vulnerable people, this should lower the threshold for sending a stool sample - and, in the first two instances (food handler or commercial food implicated) for informing the local CCDC.
- Dysentery (amoebic or bacillary)
- Paratyphoid fever
- Typhoid fever
- Hepatitis A
- Menu of information on "Gastrointestinal Disease" at HPA website - including links to the most current guidance (which should be kept up to date)
- HPA guidance on enteric pathogens, including detailed information on exclusion from work and investigation of cases (current guidance at time of writing - Jan 2005)]
Pages in category "Enteric pathogens"
The following 53 pages are in this category, out of 53 total.