Translation of RNA into amino acid peptides is a fundamental biochemical process in eukarote genetics with the peptides being further processed to make proteins. Transcription of the genetic messages in DNA into RNA is usually first. Life is not quite that simple but the dogma is a useful key concept if you wish to understand medicine.
Translation takes place via ribosomes. It is a very complex process, involving t-RNA and multiple initiator and promotor proteins. From the point of view of the mRNA an initiation factor, eIF4A helicase, is important as it unwinds any hairpin loops in the mRNA, so exposing the start codon (AUG), and the proteins eIF4E and eIF4G by binding the mRNA CAP to the PABP on the poly-A tail are believed to promote ribosome efficiency as the ribosome can start again once its finished, without really dissociating from the mRNA.
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