Cerebellum

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Cerebellum from above
Cerebellum from below

The cerebellum is a part of the hindbrain and is involved in the fine coordination of movement, including speech. Problems with the cerebellum will announce themselves by problems with gait, nystagmus or dysdiadochokinesis. The cerebellar tonsils normally sit just above the foramen magnum and severely increased intracranial pressure can lead to herniation of these tonsils through the foramen magnum with resulting brainstem compression and possible death. The Arnold-Chiari malformation is a congenital lesion where the cerebellar tonsils protrude through the foramen magnum with minimal brainstem compression although they can cause problems with the circulation of CSF with resultant hydrocephalus.