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Removal of the gall bladder usually because of presumed symptomatic gallstones. Done twice as often in USA than UK.[1]

Performed as:


  • Infection
  • Haematoma gall bladder bed
  • Bile leak
  • Inadvertent injury such as to bile duct or vascular injury
  • Retained stone in the bile duct. The most serious is bile duct injury, occurring at a rate of 0.2% in both laparoscopic and open surgery.

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