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This article is a stub. Please feel free to expand it and make it more encyclopaedic.

Removal of the foreskin. (NB - this page applies only to removal of the male foreskin, not to female genital mutilation.



Circumcision may also be performed for religious or cultural reasons. Traditional circumcision may be associated with a risk of complications.[1]

There is some evidence to suggest that circumcision may reduce the likelihood of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV[2] and HPV[3]; but there is little evidence that this applies in developed countries.[4]

Surgical techniques

The Plastibell device is used as a speedy alternative to the classic circumcision.


Blockade of the dorsal nerves, using a small amount of local anaesthetic - bupivacaine for extended duration, prilocaine or lidocaine for rapid onset - below the pubic symphysis may be used as a component of an anaesthetic technique and provides pain relief post-operatively. It has been used as a sole agent but is not expected to provide complete anaesthesia.
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  • post-operative haemorrhage (this can usually be controlled and stopped by firm digital pressure for 10 minutes).
  • wound infection