This article is a stub. Please feel free to expand it and make it more encyclopaedic.
Removal of the foreskin. (NB - this page applies only to removal of the male foreskin, not to female genital mutilation.
- Irreducible Paraphimosis
- Recurrent balanitis
- Balanitis xerotica obliterans
- Carcinoma of the prepuce
Circumcision may also be performed for religious or cultural reasons. Traditional circumcision may be associated with a risk of complications.
There is some evidence to suggest that circumcision may reduce the likelihood of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV and HPV; but there is little evidence that this applies in developed countries.
The Plastibell device is used as a speedy alternative to the classic circumcision.
AnalgesiaBlockade of the dorsal nerves, using a small amount of local anaesthetic - bupivacaine for extended duration, prilocaine or lidocaine for rapid onset - below the pubic symphysis may be used as a component of an anaesthetic technique and provides pain relief post-operatively. It has been used as a sole agent but is not expected to provide complete anaesthesia.
- post-operative haemorrhage (this can usually be controlled and stopped by firm digital pressure for 10 minutes).
- wound infection
- ↑ Peltzer K, Nqeketo A, Petros G, Kanta X. Traditional circumcision during manhood initiation rituals in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a pre-post intervention evaluation. BMC public health. 2008; 8:64.(Epub) (Link to article – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Macdonald A, Humphreys J, Jaffe HW. Prevention of HIV Transmission in the United Kingdom: What is the Role of Male Circumcision? Sexually transmitted infections. 2008 Feb 18.(Epub ahead of print) (Link to article – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, McDuffie K, Thompson P, Shvetsov YB, Ning L, Goodman MT. Circumcision and Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men: A Site-Specific Comparison. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2008 Feb 19.(Epub ahead of print) (Link to article – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Dickson NP, van Roode T, Herbison P, Paul C. Circumcision and risk of sexually transmitted infections in a birth cohort. The Journal of pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 152(3):383-7.(Link to article – subscription may be required.)