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Colistin was discovered in 1949 as a product of Paenibacillus polymyxa sp. colistinus. A high incidence of nephrotoxicity caused use to diminish in the 1980's. However dose adjustment in renal failure and other dose adjustment allow acceptable toxicity. Colistin use in veterinary medicine has not been associated with an increased resistance in animal commensal Escherichia coli but resistance does occur in some of the multi-resistant organisms it is usually used to treat.