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Coded by POMC gene at 2p23.3 it is a 267 amino acid protein subjected to glycosylation and differential cleavage to produce 6 peptide hormones as well as endorphins. Pro-opiomelanocortinin deficiency causes early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency and red hair. Glucocorticoids suppress ACTH release by inhibiting synthesis of its messenger RNA. There are hypothalamic neurons that produce it and there is strong evidence for neuropeptide activity in some of the peptides produced from its processing.

Cleaved into:
Peptide Start






NNP 27 102 76 Residues 71 and 91 glycosylated, disulfide bond between 28 and 50
Melanocyte stimulating hormone 77 87 11 Also known as melanotropin gamma, gamma-MSH, γ-MSH
Potential peptide 105 134 30 No known activity, residues 88 modified to phenylalanine amide and 134 to glutamic acid 1-amide
Adrenocorticotropic hormone 138 176 39 Also known as corticotropin, ACTH
Melanotropin alpha 138 150 13 Also known as alpha-MSH, (α-MSH). Overlap with ACTH, residue 150 modified to valine amide
Corticotropin like intermediate peptide 156 176 21 Also known as corticotropin-like intermediary lobe peptide, CLIP, corticotropin-like intermediary peptide. residue 168 modified to phosphoserine
Lipotropin beta 179 267 89 Also known as beta-LPH, β-LPH
Lipotropin gamma 179 234 56 Also known as gamma-LPH, γ-LPH. Note overlap with lipotropin beta
Melanocyte stimulating hormone 217 234 18 Melanotropin beta, beta-MSH, β-MSH Note overlap with lipotropins
Beta-endorphin 237 267 31
[Met]-enkephalin 237 241 5 Note overlap with Beta-endorphin