Follicular dendritic cell
Follicular dendritic cells are a key cell type in the modulation of the immune response and were discovered in 1965. They express the CD10 antigen that stimulates the B cell response but because they have not so far been characterised to have an unique cell marker (as of 2011) their role in capturing and retaining antigens within secondary lymphoid organs and the consequential immunological response, particularly humoral immunity, is incompletely understood. Dendritic cells induce and maintain tolerance to self and immunity to non-self by integrating the innate and adaptive immune systems. They can also express the prion protein and if they do express the infective conformation this is associated with CNS spread of prion disease.
- Prime peptide-specific naive CD8+ T cells, and induce their differentiation into cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express high levels of cytotoxic molecules and are accordingly efficient at killing tumor cells
- Induce proliferation of allogeneic naive helper T lymphocytes
- Upon stimulation with virus (eg influenza) they promote the differentiation of memory B cells towards antibody-secreting plasma cells
One issue is that mouse dentritic cells seem to work in different ways to human dentritic cells. As an example of limitations of knowledge some functions can be guessed by studies of dentritic cells in the human skin there are at least three different subsets and only one cell subpopulations functions may be well understood:
- CD1ahighCD14−HLA-DR+ Langerhans cells in epidermis
- CD1adimCD14−HLA-DR+ CD1a+ dermal dendritic cell)
- CD1a−CD14+HLA-DR+ (CD14+ dermal dendritic cell)
This article is a work in progress. Please feel free to contribute to it.
- ↑ Mitchell J, Abbot A. Ultrastructure of the antigen-retaining reticulum of lymph node follicles as shown by high-resolution autoradiography. Nature. 1965 Oct 30; 208(5009):500-2.
- ↑ a b Ueno H, Schmitt N, Palucka AK, Banchereau J. Dendritic cells and humoral immunity in humans. Immunology and cell biology. 2010 May-Jun; 88(4):376-80.(Link to article – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Bachy V, Aucouturier P. Prion diseases: what is the role of dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of transmissible prion diseases?.. Médecine sciences : M/S. 2010 Jun-Jul; 26(6-7):615-20.(Link to article – subscription may be required.)