Diabetes insipidus is the less common form of diabetes. It is caused by a failure in the kidney to resorb water, or a failure by the pituitary to instruct it to do so. Large volumes of dilute urine are passed, leading to dehydration and collapse.
Cranial Diabetes Insipidus
- due to loss of ADH production
- The variety stemming from failure of pituitary release of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) is controlled by intranasal administration of ADH - nowadays synthetic.
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
- Owing to loss of effect of ADH on collecting ducts which can be caused by several mutations in the receptor and effector protein genes (eg in AQP2 or AVPR2).
- Can be a complication of Conn's syndrome.
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