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Prevalence: 3-10% of children; 2-3x more common in males.


Spelling may be more severely affected than reading; problems may persist even if reading becomes reasonably fluent. Spelling errors are often severe and bizarre e.g “umderlee” for umbrella rather than “mite” for might. Reading errors often based on attempts to guess the word from its shape.

Associated with neurodevelopmental & neuropsychological impairments including left-to-right confusion, poor coordination, poor constructional abilities, motor impersistence, language abnormalities.

Children may span whole IQ range; mean IQ is average or slightly below average. Verbal IQ tends to be lower than performance IQ.

No association with left handedness or mixed dominance. More common among children from large families. Associated with other psychiatric problems.

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