Epidermal growth factor receptor
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Receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF). Also known as c-erbB proto-oncogene. EGFR works through a tyrosine kinase that mediates cell proliferation and migration. Activation of the receptor is complex as, in addition to EGF, there are 5 other known ligands that can activate EGFR. Ligand-indepedent activation is also described. Additionally, activation of EGFR may involve heterodimer associations with the three other members of the EGF receptor family: erbB2/HER2, erbB3/HER3 and erbB4/HER4).
The downstream signalling pathway is complex with interactions with other signals and pathways and is best regarded as a network rather than a linear pathway. However, downstream activiating k-ras mutations may render EGFR inhibition ineffective.
Found on many cells and over-expressed in some cancer types, especially those of epithelial origin. It is a therapeutic target for several monoclonal antibodies (e.g. cetuximab, panitumumab) and smaller molecules (e.g. gefitinib and erlotinib) used in the treatment of cancer.
- ↑ Oda K, Matsuoka Y, Funahashi A, Kitano H. A comprehensive pathway map of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. Molecular systems biology 2005;1:2005.0010. (Direct link – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Scaltriti M, Baselga J. The epidermal growth factor receptor pathway: a model for targeted therapy. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2006;12:5268-72. (Direct link – subscription may be required.)