The numbering and explanation for all the exanthemata is not entirely clear - see below.
- Measles (aka first disease, rubeola)
- Scarlet fever (aka second disease)
- Rubella (aka German measles, third disease)
- "Dukes disease" (aka fourth disease; probably coxsackievirus or echovirus)
- Parvovirus B19 (aka erythema infectiosum, slapped cheek syndrome, fifth disease)
- Roseola infantum
(herpesvirus 6 infection; aka "exanthem subitum", sixth disease)
Discussion in ProMED on numbering of exanthemata
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Date: Mon 5 Nov 2012 From: Dario Di Luca <Dario <email@example.com> [edited]
With reference to your comment appended to the post on Parvovirus B19 infection contained in ProMED post: Parvovirus B19 - USA: (MO) 20121102, I would like to point out that exanthema subitum is not Dukes' disease (or 4th disease). Instead, exanthem subitum is the 6th disease, etiologically caused by human herpesvirus 6 Variant B (HHV-6B) (1st report by Yamanishi et al. Lancet. 1988;8594:1065-7) or, occasionally, also by human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) (1st report, to my knowledge, Tanaka et al., J. Pediatr. 1994;125(1):1-5). Since then, the etiological association between HHV-6B and exanthem subitum has been confirmed by scores of papers and is universally accepted.
To my knowledge, Dukes' disease, which originally was described around 1900 as an exanthem different from measles and rubella, has been associated with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (reviewed by Weisse, Lancet 2001;357(9252):299-301) or, alternatively, it has been considered a non-clinical entity (Morens and Katz, Am J Epidem. 1991;134:628-40).
-- Prof. Dario Di Luca Section of Microbiology Dept. Medical Sciences University of Ferrara Via Borsari 46 44100 Ferrara Italy
[My thanks to Professor Di Luca for drawing attention to this anomaly. Unfortunately, there appears to be little consensus regarding the identities of the "6 Diseases" of childhood. The source I used identified the 6 diseases as: measles 1st, scarlet fever 2nd, rubella 3rd, Dukes' disease 4th, parvovirus B19 infection 5th, and roseola 6th.
This classification of childhood diseases would seem to have little relevance now, and it would be appropriate to release parvovirus B19 infection from its designation as the 5th disease. - Mod.CP]
[see also: Parvovirus B19 - USA: (MO) 20121102.1388053]