Fetal cells in maternal blood before and after pregnancy.
A degree of this is normal and animal models suggest it occurs in all pregnancies. It may explain certain differences epidemiologically between females who have been pregnant and those who have not. The number of conditions associated with it are limited and a large number of autoimmune diseases have been examined for such an association. Some conditions that may be associated are:
- Systemic sclerosis
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Primary biliary cirrhosis but initial reports do not seem reproducible
- Autoimmune thyroid disease
- Juvenile myositis
- ↑ Bianchi DW, Zickwolf GK, Weil GJ, Sylvester S, DeMaria MA. Male fetal progenitor cells persist in maternal blood for as long as 27 years postpartum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1996;93:705-8.
- ↑ Yan Z, Lambert NC, Guthrie KA, Porter AJ, Loubiere LS, Madeleine MM, et al. Male microchimerism in women without sons: quantitative assessment and correlation with pregnancy history. The American journal of medicine. 2005;118:899-906. (Direct link – subscription may be required.)