Glucagon-like peptide 1

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Common Name:Glucagon-like peptide 1
Alternative Name:GLP-1
Other Names, such as IUPAC Name
GLP-1(7-37), GLP-1(7-36)amide, Enteroglucagon (redundant)
Biochemical Information
Molecular Structure
Human GLP-1(7-36)amide structure
Human GLP-1(7-36)amide molecule
Important Issues in Man
Acts on GLP-1 receptor on islet α and β cells as well as multiple peripheral tissues inhibiting glucagon secretion, gastric emptying and food ingestion promoting glucoregulation .
Relevant Clinical Literature
UK Guidance
Other Wikis
Wikipedia on Glucagon-like peptide 1 (Less technical, ? quality control)

Glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1, Enteroglucagon) is an incretin which in man exists in two equipotent forms GLP-1(7-37) and GLP-1(7-36)amide, with the latter being released more after indigestion of food . It is mainly produced as a result of both neurological and endocrine signalling by the enteroendocrine L cells of the distal ileum and colon (and possibly the L cells of the duodenum and jejunum) with active uptake by the hypothalamus[1]. Animal models also suggest a possible role for the vagus nerve acting on the rhombenecephalon and then transport along axons to the ventral medial hypothalamus[2]. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contains GLP-1 nerve fibers expressing GLP-1 receptors, making it a likely site for GLP-1 signaling. GLP-1 is mainly inactivated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 with a biological t1/2 of 1.5 minutes.

It is coded for on the GCG gene at 2q36-q37 which contains contains 6 exons and 5 introns. In the cell preproglucagon is processed and the active aminoacid sequences 7-37 and 7-36 result.

It is specific for the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor explaining why it is the most active stimulator of glucose-induced insulin secretion[3].

Actions

  • Stimulates glucose dependent insulin secretion
  • Suppresses glucagon secretion
  • Delays gastric emptying
  • Reduces perception of hunger

Analogues such as liraglutide may prove to be useful for diabetes and obesity.

References

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