Gadolinium contrast agents are used as contrast media to enhance magnetic resonance imaging as they are paramagnetic. This compound has a low incidence of adverse side effects, although there is a rare association with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) when given to people with severe renal impairment (ie, GFR glomerular filtration rate <30mL/min/1·73m2).      It seems to be related to the liberation of free gadolinium ions, and the least stable of the agents - Omniscan (gadodiamide) and Magnevist were withdrawn in Europe in 2017. In Europe restricted indications apply to two other agents, gadobenic acid (also known as gadobenate dimeglumine; MultiHance) and gadoxetic acid (Primovist) which are limited to delayed phase liver imaging.
- ↑ GADOLINIUM-CONTAINING MRI CONTRAST AGENTS AND NEPHROGENIC SYSTEMIC FIBROSIS (NSF) - DoH upade UK
- ↑ Grobner T. Gadolinium - a specific trigger for the development of nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006 Apr;21(4):1104-8. Erratum 2006 Jun;21(6):1745.
- ↑ Marckmann P, Skov L, Rossen K, Dupont A et al. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: suspected causative role of gadodiamide used for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Sep;17 (9):2359-62.
- ↑ Idée JM, Port M, Schaefer M, Le Greneur S, Corot C. Clinical and biological consequences of transmetallation induced by contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging: a review. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;20 (6):563-76.
- ↑ Thomsen HS, Morcos SK, Dawson P. Is there a causal relation between the administration of gadolinium based contrast media and the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)? Clin Radiol. 2006 Nov;61(11):905-6.
- ↑ Morcos SK. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis following the administration of extracellular gadolinium based contrast agents: Is the stability of the contrast agent molecule an important factor in the pathogenesis of this condition? (In press).
- ↑ Joffe P, Thomsen HS, Meusel M. Pharmacokinetics of gadodiamide injection in patients with severe renal insufficiency and patients undergoing hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Acad Radiol 1998;5:491-502.