Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (1806 -1875) was the French neurologist who introduced practicable muscle biopsy, electromyography, and popularized clinical photography. He has several muscle disease named after him including Duchenne muscular dystrophy. He taught Charcot and influenced Darwins publications on human behaviour.
"Guillaume Duchenne wanted to test the popular idea that the face was directly connected to the soul by photographing the effect of applying electric shocks to damaged muscles. One of Duchenne’s patients was a shoemaker suffering from Bell’s Palsy. Duchenne subjected the shoemaker to over 100 sessions, applying electrodes to the face. Paul Tournachon, son of Felix Nadar, photographed the sessions. Duchenne’s experiments proved that when a person expresses a genuine smile, particular muscles are used. In physiology, the authentic smile is called the ‘Duchenne smile’." |
From Beetles & Huxley about an exhibition of 19th Century photographs