- Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency
- antibody or immunologically-mediated (type II hypersensitivity)
- mechanical (occasionally in vivo, far more common on venepuncture)
- osmotic (usually in vitro, rarely in vivo)
In the context of an infective illness with in vivo haemolysis consider:
- See also Acute haemolysis
Haemolysed Blood Samples
Haemolysis of erythrocytes in blood samples by venepuncture taken for biochemical analysis results in release of potassium and several other enzymes (particular 'liver' enzymes) into serum or plasma, leading to falsely elevated levels of analytes.
- High negative pressure, e.g. aspiration using high force or Vacutainer® system.
- Drawing of blood from a peripheral intravenous cannulae.
- ↑ Carraro P, Servidio G, Plebani M. Hemolyzed specimens: a reason for rejection or a clinical challenge? Clinical chemistry. 2000 Feb; 46(2):306-7.
- ↑ Becton Dickinson Tech Talk Oct 2003 Vol 2 No. 2
- ↑ Ong ME, Chan YH, Lim CS. Observational study to determine factors associated with blood sample haemolysis in the emergency department. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. 2008 Sep; 37(9):745-8.
- ↑ Kennedy C, Angermuller S, King R, Noviello S, Walker J, Warden J, Vang S. A comparison of hemolysis rates using intravenous catheters versus venipuncture tubes for obtaining blood samples. Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association. 1996 Dec; 22(6):566-9.
- ↑ Grant MS. The effect of blood drawing techniques and equipment on the hemolysis of ED laboratory blood samples. Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association. 2003 Apr; 29(2):116-21.
- ↑ Lowe G, Stike R, Pollack M, Bosley J, O'Brien P, Hake A, Landis G, Billings N, Gordon P, Manzella S, Stover T. Nursing blood specimen collection techniques and hemolysis rates in an emergency department: analysis of venipuncture versus intravenous catheter collection techniques. Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association. 2008 Feb; 34(1):26-32.(Link to article – subscription may be required.)