Halicephalobus gingivalis is the only member of the 8 species in the nematode genus Halicephalobus known to cause neurohelminthiases infection in vertebrates. In horses which are a possible vector for human transmission, although the organism is also found in the soil this can be asymptomatic or as severe as a menigioencephalitis. Two cases of non neurological illness in horses have been successfully treated with ivermectin alone or with diethylcarbamazine. Up to 2014 less than ten cases of human infection resulting in a fatal meningoencephalomyelitis diagnosed only at post mortem have been reported . It is likely only brain biopsy would allow diagnosis in life at this time.
- Superkingdom Eukaryota
- ↑ Henneke C, Jespersen A, Jacobsen S, Nielsen MK, McEvoy F, Jensen HE. The distribution pattern of Halicephalobus gingivalis in a horse is suggestive of a haematogenous spread of the nematode. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica. 2014; 56:56.(Epub) (Link to article – subscription may be required.)
- ↑ Papadi B, Boudreaux C, Tucker JA, Mathison B, Bishop H, Eberhard ME. Halicephalobus gingivalis: a rare cause of fatal meningoencephalomyelitis in humans. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2013 Jun; 88(6):1062-4.(Link to article – subscription may be required.)