Help:Citations

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Verifiable citations and references are core to our project and we would encourage authors to provide these. Please use primary references that you have actually read.
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  • Use Primary sources
  • Generally you should not cite Wikipedia or GANFYD as they are usually tertiary sources.
  • Review articles can be cited and we encourage this especially where they are easily accessible as they will tend to provide more depth than GANFYD

Ganfyd has an extension to MediaWiki, which permits easy insertion of references.

Resources that may help identify original citations from the web include:

  1. PUBMED
  2. Citation Classics.

Do remember when preparing articles that abstracts alone have limitations and it is easy to overlook key work especially when it is not freely available.

Contents

Summary

Syntax

  • Tag the reference in line by <ref> Text of the reference </ref>
  • Place the following template at the end of the article {{refsec}}
  • If you have multiple identical references on a page give the first one an explicate name vis:
    • <ref name="DuplicateRef-2"> Text of the reference </ref>
  • And then use the following abbreviated syntax for subsequent dublicate references on same page
    • <ref name="DuplicateRef-2"/>

Using PubMed ID

The easiest house syntax style is:

  • <ref><pmid> refno </pmid></ref>

where refno is the PUBMED pmid reference number.

<ref><pmid> refno </pmid></ref> will generate automatically the full reference and a direct link, if it exists, to the article itself. Insert {{Refsec}} at the end of the article. Do check the Show Preview option, to check you have the syntax right. It takes a moment to download all those references first time from the Cambridge University based database we now use for technical reasons and convert them to https pubmed links, so a server timeout could occur. This is perhaps recoverable through the browser back button on desktop browsers. Bugs in the code are still possible : >

  • Consider using <ref name="pmid: refno "><pmid> refno </pmid></ref> which allows multiple same pmid references on a page to be summarised in the reference list.

The preferred manual house style syntax is:

  • <ref>[[pubmed:refno|Reference details]]</ref>

Why longer syntax might be better

The syntax

  • <ref name="pmid: refno "><pmid> refno </pmid></ref> would generate automatically detected duplicate references if used consistently. It will bulk up page size but would be fool proof if used with pubmed references where pmid known. it is actually possible to use the syntax <ref name="pmid: refno " /> for each subsequent duplicate link to a fully specified initial one but this is dangerous if the first reference gets deleted.

Using web links

A web link reference reads:

  • <ref>[http://www.website]</ref>

or preferably:

  • <ref>[http://www.website Reference details]</ref>

A non web reference reads:

  • <ref>Reference details</ref>

References are then collated automatically (although previous automatic detection of identical references no longer works) and will be listed in footnote style by the code:

  • <references/> which is usually placed at the end of the article.

However a briefer way of doing this to generate standard format is by using the template:

  • {{Refsec}} which also inserts a References title to the footnotes the template should be at the end of the page.
    • Use syntax:{{refsame|PAGENAME}} when page might be subcluded. where PAGENAME is the character string of the pagename that will be subcluded. This will prevent a reference list in the middle of a page. Note that the construct {{refsame|{{PAGENAME}}}} would cause a list of references to be generated where ever the subclusion took place which is not usually wanted.

Using doi

The digital object identifier can also be used, but it will not provide the text as the PMID will.

The DOI FAQ states:

Users may resolve DOI names that are structured to use a DOI System proxy server (http://dx.doi.org), which "translates" a name using URL syntax. The resolution of the DOI name in this case depends on the use of URL syntax: for example doi:10.1000/123 would be resolved from the address: "http://dx.doi.org/10.1000/123". Any standard browser encountering a DOI name in this form will be able to resolve it.

So the correct format to use for GANFYD, for that example (doi:10.1000/123):

  • <ref>[http://dx.doi.org/10.1000/123 Reference details]</ref>

Take the following actual example:

  • Sattar N, McConnachie A, Shaper AG, Blauw GJ, Buckley BM, de Craen AJ, et al. Can metabolic syndrome usefully predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes? Outcome data from two prospective studies. The Lancet Early Online Publication 2008(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673608606029/abstract?iseop=true).

At the top of the web page it states: "The Lancet DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60602-9."

To use this reference in ganfyd use the following:

  • <ref>[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60602-9 Sattar N, McConnachie A, Shaper AG, Blauw GJ, Buckley BM, de Craen AJ, et al. Can metabolic syndrome usefully predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes? Outcome data from two prospective studies. The Lancet Early Online Publication 2008 (http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673608606029/abstract?iseop=true)]</ref>

Except that I just tried it and it doesn't work and I don't know why :-(

How to insert a reference

Referencing papers

The code <ref>[[Pubmed:6321357|Knothe H, Shah P, Krcmery V, Antal M, Mitsuhashi S. Transferable resistance to cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefamandole and cefuroxime in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. ''Infection''. 1983 Nov-Dec ; 11(6): 315-7]]</ref> inserts a reference to a paper. The bit before the pipe is a link to a pubmed site. The text after the pipe is the title of the paper in ANSI style.

Use of links to the Pubmed reference of the abstract of a article as outlined in how to link to a Pubmed reference is encouraged as many original articles will not be free to view to most readers, even if the author has no problems due to their personal or institutional subscriptions.

The gold standard is: <ref>[[Pubmed:12193361|Wolfe RM, Sharp LK. Anti-vaccinationists past and present. ''BMJ'' 2002;325:430-2]] Also available [http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/325/7361/430 online from BMJ] (subscription required, last accessed 3rd March 2006.)</ref> This produces output like:

1. Wolfe RM, Sharp LK. Anti-vaccinationists past and present. BMJ 2002;325:430-2 Also available online from BMJ (subscription required, last accessed 3rd March 2006.)

Referencing websites

The code <ref>[http://www.example.com]</ref> inserts a reference to a website into the body of the document. You can have a custom caption for the URL if you put it after the URL and separate it with a space, as in:

<ref>[http://www.example.com Example caption]</ref>

If possible, mention the date you accessed the web site. ie:

<ref>[http://www.example.com Example caption] (last accessed 3rd March 2006.)</ref>

The strictly correct reference for GANFYD is: ganfyd [wiki on the Internet]. [United Kingdom]: [publisher unknown]. [date unknown] - [modified 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.ganfyd.org/.[1]

Referencing books

If you know the ISBN of the book you wish to reference, you should include this in the reference:

<ref>Law, Ethics and Medicine: Studies in Medical Law, Skegg PDG. Clarendon Press 1988, ISBN 0198256426</ref> inserts a reference to a book, and automatically provides a link to potential sources of the book. You can use one of two ISBN syntaxes:

  • ISBN 012345678X
  • ISBN 0-12-345678-X

Referencing other resources which cannot be linked to

Code of the form <ref>Poster seen on the wall in a GUM clinic in Brazil</ref> inserts a descriptive reference , for example.

How to display the list of references

Put {{Refsec}} at the end of the document to display the references section, in the house style. This does generate some extra server load but makes style more consistent across pages.

What about content you cannot find a reference for?

Put {{Fact}} at the end of the statement you need to qualify with a reference. You get: Needs citation This shows other contributors that a reference or citation is needed. Consider that you can write in line code that it is not displayed but viewable by source. So this text is invisible but useful for later updating<!--the Lancet has accepted for publication my earth shaking article in July 2014 and I thought I would use this wiki for advance publicity--->

If you reference an article before an internet link exists you may mark it with the {{NoLinkYet}} template like <ref>{{NoLinkYet}}Reference details</ref> This results in the display
Please supply a link for this paper.
. Common for European readers of NEJM. {{NoPMIDYet}} does the same if you want to wait until Pubmed has got around to indexing a journal article just out. This is not uncommon with the major journals such as the Lancet. Using this you get:
PMID link to reference awaited
.

House Style

For important references we expect:

  • the ANSI style[2]
  • the references numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text as expected with the Vancouver style for biomedical journals as first defined in 1999 [3] - the references extension does this automatically.
  • you to use superscript numbering in the article - the references extension does this automatically too.
  • you to use a Reference footnote section at the end of the page.
  • If is acceptable to have redundancy. An inline link that you also think is very important can also be referenced (eg the ANSI style in the first point above)

This is the style used in the medical literature and keeps the text readable.

You may use Wikipedia inline citations like

  • [[Wikipedia:Citing sources|Wikipedia inline citations]]

just as you would do for an internal Ganfyd link. Any website is referenced in line by the syntax:

  • [http://www.website Comment]

Use of links to the Pubmed reference of the abstract of a article as outlined in how to link to a Pubmed reference is encouraged as many original articles will not be free to view to most readers, even if the author has no problems due to their personal or institutional subscriptions. This should mean that most references are actually superscripted numbered links as used in this article itself.

Comparison of our style with others

A discussion on common reference styles is found in Wikipedia:Citing sources.

References