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The IL5 gene at 5q31.1 codes for the 134 amino acid propeptide for interleukin-5. This forms disulfide-linked homodimers that have a pivotal role in eosinophil production, proliferation and chemotaxis so can be regarded as a quite selective eosinophil-activating growth hormone.

It is specifically targeted by the anti-IL-5 mono-clonal antibodies mepolizumab and reslizumab with the monoclonal antibody benralizumab being targeted at IL-5 receptor α.

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