The first laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed by Erich Muhe in 1985. Several other surgeons have also been credited with pioneering the operation inclding Phillipe Mouret (1987), Perissat, Berci, Cuschieri and Dubois.  In 2010 Iain Jourdan introduced practicable 3D laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
- Acute cholecystitis
- Symptomatic cholelithiasis, e.g. recurrent biliary colic
- Choledocholithiasis causing obstructive jaundice or gallstone pancreatitis
- Exclude other causes of dyspepsia/upper GI discomfort
- Liver function tests
- Conversion to open (1:20 = 4-5%)
- Bile duct injury (1:400 to 1:2000) - uncommon, but may require further surgery
- Retained common bile duct stones
- Wound infection
- Damage to other viscera
- Port site hernia (rare)
- Induce pneumoperitoneum
- Identification of Calot's triangle
- Clip and ligate cystic artery and cystic duct
- Check haemostasis
If CBD exploration required, it may require a T-tube for subsequent exclusion of
Bile Duct Injuries
See http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/506432 for cognitive factors in making and recognising errors.
- Less common and more likely to be recognised if intra-operative cholangiogram performed
- 20-30% associated with vascular injuries, e.g. hepatic artery damage
- If immediately recognised - refer to specialist for treatment, e.g. primary repair or hepaticojejunostomy + Roux-en-Y
- If delayed, laparoscopic wash-out and place drains.
- Biliary peritonitis
- ↑ Litynski GS. Erich Muhe and the rejection of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (1985): a surgeon ahead of his time. Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. 1998 Oct-Dec;2(4):341-6.
- ↑ Litynski GS. Profiles in laparoscopy: Mouret, Dubois, and Perissat: the laparoscopic breakthrough in Europe (1987-1988). Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. 1999 Apr-Jun;3(2):163-7.
- ↑ Reynolds W Jr. The first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. 2001 Jan-Mar;5(1):89-94.
- ↑ McManus PL, Wheatley KE. Consent and complications: risk disclosure varies widely between individual surgeons. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 2003 Mar; 85(2):79-82.(Link to article – subscription may be required.)