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Loiasis is caused by Loa loa (eye worm) and is a classic instant diagnosis when the adult worms are seen during subconjunctival migration. This may present with a compliant of eyelid swelling and a sensation of motion in the eyeball. The other characteristic presentation is Calabar swellings. The patient may well have a marked eosinophilia. The vectors are mango flies or deerflies (Chrysops spp.). Occasionally the adult worm is found in the anterior chamber of the eye.



Out of interest adult Wuchereria bancrofti have been found both subconjunctivally and in eyes too[1].


Once ingested by a Chrysops fly, the microfilariae become infective in approximately 10 to 12 days. Humans are infected by Chrysops bites. The adult worm develops in about 3 to 12 months, and can survive up to 17 years.


LogoKeyPointsBox.pngSerious adverse events including fatal encephalopathy are possible in patients with very high Loa loa microfilaremia. Take care at filarial loads of 8000 microfilariae/mL and expect serious reactions for loads above 50000 microfilariae/mL[2]