Black or dark brown pigmentation in the large bowel mucosa as seen by optical colonoscopy. The most common cause of melanosis coli is chronic laxative use (usually of at least several months) of anthroquinones such as those found in senna or aloe vera. It is sometimes referred to as pseudomelanosis coli in recognition of the fact that the pigmentation is not, as was first thought, due to melanin, but possibly lipofuscin or, more likely, a substance with lipofuscin-like properties. There is a hypothesis that the anthroquinones cause damage to cellular organelles that are aggregated with lipofuscin deposits and drugs such as NSAIDs may be more common culprit than the typically implicated anthroquinones.
- ↑ Benavides SH, Morgante PE, Monserrat AJ, Zárate J, Porta EA. The pigment of melanosis coli: a lectin histochemical study. Gastrointestinal endoscopy. 1997 Aug; 46(2):131-8.
- ↑ Byers RJ, Marsh P, Parkinson D, Haboubi NY. Melanosis coli is associated with an increase in colonic epithelial apoptosis and not with laxative use. Histopathology. 1997 Feb; 30(2):160-4.
- ↑ Siegers CP, von Hertzberg-Lottin E, Otte M, Schneider B. Anthranoid laxative abuse--a risk for colorectal cancer? Gut 1993;34:1099-101.
- ↑ Nusko G, Schneider B, Müller G, Kusche J, Hahn EG. Retrospective study on laxative use and melanosis coli as risk factors for colorectal neoplasma. Pharmacology 1993;47 Suppl 1:234-41.
- ↑ Nusko G, Schneider B, Ernst H, Wittekind C, Hahn EG. Melanosis coli--a harmless pigmentation or a precancerous condition? Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 1997;35:313-8.
- ↑ Nusko G, Schneider B, Schneider I, Wittekind C, Hahn EG. Anthranoid laxative use is not a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia: results of a prospective case control study. Gut 2000;46:651-5.
- ↑ Nascimbeni R, Donato F, Ghirardi M, Mariani P, Villanacci V, Salerni B. Constipation, anthranoid laxatives, melanosis coli, and colon cancer: a risk assessment using aberrant crypt foci. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention 2002;11:753-7.