Oesophageal cancer/TNM

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The TNM classification of oesophageal cancer:

Primary Tumour (T)

  • TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed
  • T0: No evidence of primary tumour
  • Tis: Carcinoma in situ
  • T1: Tumour invades lamina propria/submucosa
  • T2: Tumour invades muscularis propria
  • T3: Tumour invades adventitia
  • T4: Tumour invades adjacent structures

Regional Lymph Nodes (N)

  • NX: Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
  • N0: No regional lymph node metastasis
  • N1: Regional lymph nodes involved

Distant metastasis (M)

  • MX: Distant metastasis cannot be assessed
  • M0: No distant metastasis

The definition of metastatic disease depends on the tumour location.

  • Upper thoracic oesophageal tumours (ICD C15.3):
    • M1a: Metastasis in cervical nodes
    • M1b: Other distant metastasis
  • Mid-thoracic oesophageal tumours (ICD C15.4):
    • M1a: Not applicable
    • M1b: Non-regional lymph nodes and/or other distant metastasis
  • Lower oesophageal tumours (ICD C15.5)
    • M1a: Metastasis in coeliac lymph nodes
    • M1b: Other distant metastasis
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