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Ophthalmoplegia is any abnormality in normal eye movement tracking and is usually manifest by diplopia in those with otherwise normal vision. It is classically caused by mechanical issues in the orbit, disorders of muscular or nervous system function. Defined lesions in the muscles, oculomotor nerves or their nuclei tend to produce distinct syndromes, while toxins, deficiency states and developmental issues with vision such as those that cause squints or diffuse muscular disease such as myasthenia gravis can be causes of more complex neurological signs. Ophthalmoparesis is used as an interchangeable term.

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