Questionnaires and rating scales used in psychiatry
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Self-report questionnaire for assessment of severity of depression. Used in clinical practice and for research.
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)
Clinician-rated scale for assessment of 24 psychiatric symptom constructs. Used in clinical practice and research as a screening tool and for assessment of global symptom severity.
Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol, Revised (CIWA-Ar)
Clinician-rated scale for withdrawal effects from alcohol. Used to give an objective measure of the severity of alcohol withdrawal in order to guide treatment.
Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Benzodiazepines
Clinician-rated scale for withdrawal effects from benzodiazepines. Used to give an objective measure of the severity of benzodiazepine withdrawal in order to guide treatment.
Screening tool for alcohol dependence. Four questions:
- Do you ever feel you should Cut down on your drinking?
- Do you get Annoyed when others criticise your drinking?
- Do you feel Guilty or ashamed about the amount you drink?
- Do you ever have to have a drink first thing in the morning (Eye-opener)?
A positive answer to any question suggests it is necessary to take a full alcohol history.
Informant-rated plus self-report scale used as screening tool for assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Teacher's questionnaire contains 59 items, parents' contains 80 items, to produce a 13 sub-scales: oppositional, cognitive problems/inattention, hyperactivity, anxious/shy, perfectionism, social problems, Conners' ADHD index, Conners' global index: restless-impulsive, Conners' global index: emotional lability, Conners' global index: total, DSM-IV: inattentive, DSM-IV: hyperactice-impulsive, DSM-IV: total. Child's questionnaire contains 87 items to produce 10 subscales: family problems, emotional problems, conduct problems, cognitive problems/inattention, anger control problems, hyperactivity, ADHD index, DSM-IV: inattentive, DSM-IV: hyperactive-impulsive, DSM-IV: total.
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)
Self-report questionnaire for assessment of general functioning and psychopathology. Four versions: GHQ-60 - full assessment; GHQ-30 - short form without physical illness items; GHQ-28 - assesses somatic symptoms; GHQ-12 - screening version for research
Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS)
Self-report questionnaire for assessment of presence and severity of known side effects of neuroleptics. 51 items including 10 "red herring" questions. Used for clinical practice and research
Manchester Krawiecka Scale
Clinician-rated scale for assessment of symptoms of psychotic disorders. Used for clinical research. 14 items covering positive and negative symptoms and medication side-effects
Mini Mental State Examination(MMSE)
Interviewer administered test of cognitive function. Used in clinical practice as a screening tool for dementia.
Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)
Interviewer administered scale for assessment of depression. Used to detect change in mood in clinical trials of antidepressants. Self-report version also available (MADRS-S).
Repertory Grid (RG)
Interviewer administered assessment of individual’s perception of the world/constructs. May be used for personality assessment but more commonly used in market research.
Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)
Self-report questionnaire to assess severity of alcohol withdrawal and guide pharmacotherapy.
Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS)
Clinician-rated scale based on physical examination for assessment of Parkinsonian extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotic medication. Used in clinical practice and research.
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
Self-report and informant-rated questionnaire for children aged 3-16. Filled in by parents, teachers and children aged 11-16. Used as a screening tool and for research. 25 items divided into 5 subscales: emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems, prosocial behaviour.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)
Tasks & questions administered by a psychologist to measure intelligence in adults. Used for research and clinical practice.
14-item self-report questionnaire to assess severity of hypochondriasis.
Speckens AEM, Spinhoven P, Sloekers PPA, Bolk JH, van Hemert AM A validation study of the Whitely Index, the Illness Attitude Scales, and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale in general medical and general practice patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1996; 40(1) 95-104
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)
Card sorting task to assess perseveration/presence of frontal lobe lesion. Four cards are presented, each containing a different shape, colour, and number of shapes. The subject is then presented with a stack of cards and asked to place each card in one of the four piles. The subject is then told either 'right' or 'wrong' for each card he placed in a pile. The rule is changed mid-way through the test, so for example when the subject might have been 'right' for matching green with green, he is then told 'wrong', and the rule will change to matching squares with squares. The subject is then expected to adapt to the new rule. Failing to adapt to the new rule is regarded as damage in the pre-frontal cortex. Mainly used for research.