Rates commonly used in epidemiology
See also standardisation (mortality).
|Rate (per annum)||Numerator||Denominator||Notes|
|General fertility rate||No of births||Women age 15-44 (1000s)||64.3 per thousand in UK in 1990|
|Crude birth rate||No of births||Total population includes men women and children (1000s)||13.9 per thousand in UK in 1990|
|Age-specific fertility rates||No of births per women of specific age range||No of women in that age range (1000s)||-|
|Total period fertility rate||Summarises age-specific rates: live births per woman if all women experienced the average number of births for each age range, throughout her reproductive life.||Per woman.|| 1.84 in UK in 1990.
2.1 is replacement figure in UK (>2 due to deaths before reaching child-bearing age).
|Stillbirth rate||No of stillbirths (>24/40 since 1992, >27/40 previously)||Total births (1000s)||4.6 per thousand in UK in 1990|
|Perinatal mortality rate (PNMR)||Stillbirths + deaths in early neonatal period (within first week of life)||Total births (1000s)||-|
|Early neonatal mortality rate||Deaths in early neonatal period (within first week of life)||Live births (1000s)||-|
|Late neonatal mortality rate||Deaths in late neonatal period (between 7th and 28th day of life)||Live births (1000s)||(150 per thousand at end of last century; 58.7 in 1936; ~8 in 1990 (UK)|
|Neonatal mortality rate||Deaths in first 28 days of life||Live births (1000s)||4.5 per thousand in UK in 1990|
|Post neonatal mortality rate||Deaths after 28 days but within the first year of life||Live births (1000s)||3.2 per thousand in UK in 1990. Strongly associated with social class etc.|
|Infant mortality rate||Deaths within the first year of life||Live births (1000s)||7.7 per thousand in UK in 1990.|
|Maternal mortality rate||Deaths occurring "while pregnant or within 42 days (6/52) of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes". See also Maternal deaths.||Total births (100 000s)||1/200 a turn of century; one in 13 000 in 1990.|
|Crude death rate||No of deaths||Total population (1000s or 10,000s)||Expresses mortality as a single figure, but varies with demography. Rate >1/10k is an emergency|
|Case fatality rate||No of deaths from a specific disease||No of cases with the same disease (1000s)||-|
|Incidence rate||Number of new cases over a defined period||Population at risk||-|
|Prevalence||Total number of cases at a point in time, or during a period of time (point or period prevalence)||Population at risk||-|