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Rifamicin is a semisynthetic rifamycin derived from Amycolatopsis mediterranei. It was first marketed in 1966.

It has a useful range of activity allowing it to be used, usually in combination (because of ease of resistance developing) with a wide range of bacterial illness. Rifampicin has excellent tissue penetration and activity on bacteria in biofilms growing on the surface of prosthetic devices. It is a standard first line therapy for several infections including:

It has enzyme inducing properties so is used in cholestasis when patients are intolerant to colestyramine.