A large number of snake species are an envenomation risk to man. Only a few islands such as New Zealand have no terrestrial poisonous snakes and even there sea dwelling coral snakes are a potential danger in warmer latitudes. Antivenom is available for many but there is always the issue of identifying correctly the snake. South East Asia guidelines on the management of snake bites are a good general reference source as national guidelines will tend to concentrate on endemic species which is not much use if a zoo keeper gets bitten or the snake has survived air travel and bites a cargo handler. World wide it has been estimated that 5 million people are bitten by venomous snakes annually and more than 100,000 die. Viper venom tends to be haemotoxic and necrotoxic, while Elapidae such as cobra's and carol snakes tend to have neurotoxic predominant venom.
- ↑ Warrell AD. Guidelines for the Management of Snake-bites World Health Organisation 2010
- ↑ Adukauskienė D, Varanauskienė E, Adukauskaitė A. Venomous snakebites. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2011; 47(8):461-7.
- ↑ Juckett G, Hancox JG. Venomous snakebites in the United States: management review and update. American family physician. 2002 Apr 1; 65(7):1367-74.
- ↑ Isbister GK. Snake bite: a current approach to management. Australian Prescriber 2006;29(5) 125-129