Common examples include
- Gastrostomy, e.g. percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
Alexis St. Martin was a French Canadian voyageur who received an accidental musket discharge into the stomach in 1822. He was treated (with little hope) by Dr William Beaumont, a US Army surgeon at the local army post. To everybody's surprise he recovered, though the skin never quite healed over the lost flesh and ribs thus allowing Dr Beaumont to study the mucosa of St Martin's stomach during digestion, anger and other situations. St Martin subsequently married and had a family.
Urostomy is the general term and not always very descriptive.
- Beaumont, William. "Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion." Maclachlan and Stewart (Edinburgh), 1838 - scanned copy of the book. Accessed 8th May 2009.