Vaginal delivery and anal sphincter function
May result in symptomatic or occult damage to sphincter complexes with identifiable defects in up to 35%..
A routine episiotomy may not prevent damage.
- ↑ MacArthur C, Bick DE, Keighley MR. Faecal incontinence after childbirth. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 1997 Jan; 104(1):46-50.
- ↑ Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN, Thomas JM, Bartram CI. Anal-sphincter disruption during vaginal delivery. The New England journal of medicine. 1993 Dec 23; 329(26):1905-11.
- ↑ Fynes M, Donnelly V, Behan M, O'Connell PR, O'Herlihy C. Effect of second vaginal delivery on anorectal physiology and faecal continence: a prospective study. Lancet. 1999 Sep 18; 354(9183):983-6.
- ↑ Fritel X, Schaal JP, Fauconnier A, Bertrand V, Levet C, Pigné A. Pelvic floor disorders 4 years after first delivery: a comparative study of restrictive versus systematic episiotomy. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2008 Jan; 115(2):247-52.(Link to article – subscription may be required.)