Forceful expulsion of gastric and proximal small bowel contents through a combination of reverse peristalsis of the upper GI tract and contraction of the abdominal muscles. It is commonly associated with nausea.
Should be distinguished from regurgitation.
- Infection, e.g. UTI, gastroenteritis
- Pain. e.g. myocardial infarction, sudden blow to abdomen
- Toxins and alcohol
- Middle ear